TUESDAY JUNE 13th PROGRAM OVERVIEW

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SESSION 1
9am – 10.30am

Games

MUSIC HALL

Affect and Emotion

EAST DRAWING ROOM

IoT

WEST DRAWING ROOM

Coffee Break
10.30am – 11am

SESSION 2
11am – 12.30pm

Futures

MUSIC HALL

Communication

EAST DRAWING ROOM

Quantified Self

WEST DRAWING ROOM

Lunch
12.30pm – 1.30pm

Facebook Symposium

EAST DRAWING ROOM

SESSION 3
1.30pm – 3pm

Children

MUSIC HALL

Robots

EAST DRAWING ROOM

Visualisation

WEST DRAWING ROOM

Coffee Break
3pm – 3.30pm

SESSION 4
3.30pm – 5pm

Creativity

MUSIC HALL

Pictorials 2

EAST DRAWING ROOM

Essays

WEST DRAWING ROOM

Evening Event
7pm – 10.30pm

Conference Dinner

DYNAMIC EARTH

TUESDAY SESSION 1  ::   9am – 10.30am

Games

MUSICHALL
Session Chair: Augoustinos Tsiros

Left Them 4 Dead: Perception of Humans versus Non-Player Character Teammates in Cooperative Gameplay

Rina Wehbe, Edward Lank & Lennart Nacke, University of Waterloo.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Cooperative Games; Sociality; User Experience; Games User Research (GUR)

Abstract: Why do we care if our teammates are not human? This study seeks to uncover whether or not the perception of other players as human or artificial entities can influence player experience. We use both deception and a between-participants blind study design to reduce bias in our experiment. Our qualitative results show that people do care about the perceived nature of other players, even though they are not always able to correctly identify them as human or as non-player character teammates. Interview data suggest believing that one is playing with other humans can positively affect a player’s subjective experience. Furthermore, our qualitative results indicate that players view their non-player character teammates as humanized entities, but adopt a neo-feudalistic (i.e., an unequal rights) view of them. Based on our results, we establish game design guide- lines for non-player character teammates leading to stronger, emotional human-computer relationships in video games.

Touchomatic: Interpersonal Touch Gaming In The Wild

Joe Marshall, Paul Tennent, University of Nottingham.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Interpersonal touch; game; in the wild; arcade.

Abstract: Direct touch between people is a key element of social behaviour. Recently a number of researchers have explored games which sense aspects of such interpersonal touch to control interaction with a multiplayer computer game. In this paper, we describe a long term, in-the-wild study of a two-player arcade game which is controlled by gentle touching between the body parts of two players. We ran the game in a public videogame arcade for a year, and present a thematic analysis of 27 hours of gameplay session videos, organized under three top level themes: control of the system, interpersonal interaction within the game, and social interaction around the game. In addition, we provide a quantitative analysis of observed demographic differences in interpersonal touch behaviour. Finally, we use these results to present four design recommendations for use of interpersonal touch in games.

Audience Participation Games: Blurring the Line Between Player and Spectator

Joseph Seering, Carnegie Mellon University; Saiph Savage,  West Virginia University; Michael Eagle, Carnegie Mellon University; Joshua Churchin, University of Rochester; Rachel Moeller, Jeffrey Bigham, Jessica Hammer, Carnegie Mellon University.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Games and play; social media and online communities; entertainment

Abstract: Audience Participation Games challenge traditional assumptions about gameplay by blurring the line between audience and player, allowing audience members to impact gameplay in a meaningful way. Their recent rise in popularity has created new opportunities for game research and development. To better understand this design space, we developed several versions of two prototype games as design probes. We livestreamed them to an online audience in order to develop a framework for audience motivations and participation styles, to explore ways in which mechanics can affect audience members’ sense of agency, and to identify promising design spaces. Our results show the breadth of opportunities and challenges that designers face in creating engaging Audience Participation Games.

AutoJam: Exploring Interactive Music Experiences in Stop-and-Go Traffic

Sven Krome, Joshua Batty, Stefan Greuter, Jussi Holopainen, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.

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Keywords: Creativity; ideation; design methods; creativity methods; analytical framework.

Abstract: This paper contributes an analytical framework to improve understanding of the composition of recognized creativity methods used in design. Based on an extensive literature review, our framework synthesizes key concepts from design and particularly creativity research, and is further supported by significant experience with creativity methods in design. We propose that nine concepts are relevant for analyzing creativity methods in design: process structure, materials, tools, combination, metaphor, analogy, framing, divergence, and convergence. To test their relevance as components of an analytical framework, we use these key concepts to analyze three recognized creativity methods that we have often used ourselves: Inspiration Card Workshops, Fictional Inquiry, and Extreme Characters. Our analytical framework expands current categorizations of methods and offers new insight into how creativity methods are composed, how and why they work, and how they potentially may be tweaked or refined for enhanced deployment in design.

Affect & Emotion

EAST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: John Vines

Image-based Emotion Feedback: How Does the Crowd Feel? And Why?

David Robb, Stefano Padilla,Thomas Methven, Britta Kalkreuter & Mike Chantler, Heriot-Watt University.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Cognitive styles; affective computing; creativity; design feedback; crowdsourcing; perceptual and emotional feedback; image summarization.

Abstract: In previous work we developed a method for interior designers to receive image-based feedback about a crowd’s emotions when viewing their designs. Although the designers clearly desired a service which provided the new style of feedback, we wanted to find out if an internet crowd would enjoy, and become engaged in, giving emotion feedback this way. In this paper, through a mixed methods study, we expose whether and why internet users enjoy giving emotion feedback using images compared to responding with text. We measured the participants’ cognitive styles and found that they correlate with the reported utility and engagement of using images. Those more visual than they are verbal were more engaged by using images to express emotion compared to text. Enlightening qualitative insights reveal, surprisingly, that half of our participants have an appetite for expressing emotions this way, value engagement over clarity, and would use images for emotion feedback in contexts other than design feedback.

Designing for Self-Tracking of Emotion and Experience with Tangible Modality

Kwangyoung Lee, Hwajung Hong, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Self-tracking; emotion; mental health; MindTracker

Abstract: Self-tracking technologies have been developed to understand the self. Emotions are critical to understanding one’s daily life; however, tracking the emotion is challenging due to the implicit form of data. In this paper, we introduce MindTracker, an approach for tracking emotion through a tangible interaction with plasticine clay. We explored the benefits and challenges of MindTracker via a two-week data collection study with 16 college students as well as via interviews with three clinical mental health experts. MindTracker is designed for users to craft a form that represents emotion using clay and to describe the experience that evokes the emotion using a diary. We found that the tangible modality of MindTracker motivated the participants to express various aspects of emotions. In addition, MindTracker’s data collection and reflection process could have therapeutic properties, such as expressive therapy, self-soothing, and emotional self-regulation. We conclude this paper by discussing the design features of emotion-tracking tools and opportunities to use MindTracker to promote mental health.

Designing Authentic Emotions for Non-Human Characters: A Study Evaluating Virtual Affective Behavior

Oliver Korn, Offenburg University; Lukas Stamm, ORION GmbH; Gerd Moeckl, SRH Hochschule Heidelberg.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Emotion; emotion recognition; affective; games; design; perception; animation; facial expressions; body cues

Abstract: While human emotions have been researched for decades, designing authentic emotional behavior for non-human characters has received less attention. However, virtual behavior not only affects game design, but also allows creating authentic avatars or robotic companions.

After a discussion of methods to model and recognize emotions, we present three characters with a decreasing level of human features and describe how established design techniques can be adapted for such characters. In a study, 220 participants assess these characters’ emotional behavior, focusing on the emotion “anger”. We want to determine how reliable users can recognize emotional behavior, if characters increasingly do not look and behave like humans. A secondary aim is determining if gender has an impact on the competence in emotion recognition.

The findings indicate that there is an area of insecure attribution of virtual affective behavior not distant but close to human behavior. We also found that at least for anger, men and women assess emotional behavior equally well.

What Can Self-Reports and Acoustic Data Analyses on Emotions Tell Us?

Samaneh Soleimani & Effie Law, University of Leicester.

Read Abstract

Keywords: User experience; evaluation; emotion; acoustic analysis

Abstract: There are two approaches to measure people’s experiences: memory-based and moment-based. Whereas the memory-based approaches are susceptible to the peak-end effect, the moment-based approaches appear to better reflect the experience of the present. In this paper, we propose that emotional assessment of think aloud verbalisations is a moment-based methodology for measuring UX. We conducted an empirical study with 46 participants in the domain of online shopping to evaluate their emotional experiences. Acoustic analysis of verbal data was used as the moment-based approach and self-report questionnaires as the retrospective or memory-based approach. Results of the study confirmed the previous finding that retrospective assessments did not reflect the actual experience. The results also suggested that retrospective evaluations of emotions were significantly correlated with the most frequently elicited emotion (i.e. modal emotion) during the interaction. In conclusion these results support the use of acoustic data analysis as an alternative approach to measuring UX.s.

IoT

WEST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: Marcus Foth

Morse Things: A Design Inquiry into the Gap Between Things and Us

Ron Wakkary, Doenja Oogjes, Sabrina Hauser, Henry Lin, Fu Cheng Cao, Leo Ma, Simon Fraser University; Tijs Duel, Technical University of Eindhoven.

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Keywords: Things; Material Speculation; Internet of Things; Postphenomenology

Abstract: Applying a thing-centered, material speculation approach we designed the Morse Things to acknowledge and inquire into the gap between things and us. The Morse Things are sets of ceramic bowls and cups networked together to independently communicate through Morse code in an Internet of Things (IoT). We deployed the Morse Things in the households of six interaction design practitioners and researchers for six weeks. Following the deployment, we conducted a workshop to discuss the role of the Morse Things and ultimately the gap between things and people. We reflect on the nature of living with IoT things and discuss insights into the gap between things and humans that led to the idea of a new type of thing in the home that is neither human-centered technology nor non-digital artifacts.

Towards Commoditised Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Simon Klakegg, Simo Hosio  University of Oulu; Jorge Goncalves, Niels van Berkel, Niels van Berkel, Chu Luo, Simo Hosio, The University of Melbourne.

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Keywords: Near Infrared Spectroscopy; sample identification; sensor accessibility; user-induced errors; pharmaceuticals; user study; gluten detection

Abstract: Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a sensing technique in which near infrared light is transmitted into a sample, followed by light absorbance measurements at various wavelengths. This technique enables the inference of the inner chemical composition of the scanned sample, and therefore can be used to identify or classify objects. In this paper, we describe how to facilitate the use of NIRS by non- expert users in everyday settings. Our work highlights the key challenges of placing NIRS devices in the hands of non-experts. We develop a system to mitigate these challenges, and evaluate it in a user study. We show how NIRS technology can be successfully utilised by untrained users in an unsupervised manner through a special enclosure and an accompanying smartphone app. Finally, we discuss potential future developments of commoditised NIRS.

“Proof in the Pudding”: Designing IoT Plants to Promote Wellbeing

Sarah Martindale, Ben Bedwell, The University of Nottingham; Robert Phillips, Micaella Pedros, Royal College of Art.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Internet-of-things; IoT; plants; growing; wellbeing; health; participatory design; ideation

Abstract: This paper contributes a participatory design case study that used workshops and ideation frameworks to scaffold a conceptualisation of ‘user data-actuated’ plants. The framework combines ideation cards, worksheets and facilitated co-design, guiding non-experts to conceptually connect personal data, health/wellbeing goals, plants and people. We demonstrate how the framework enabled participants to envisage ‘connected’ plants, linking personal data outputs with inputs to actuated growing environments, creating biofeedback.

From the results of design work carried out by participants, we synthesise and present four themes. The themes provide a spectrum of values that participants embedded in their connected plants, and in the act of gifting their connected plants to other people. The results of these workshops sign-post a new design space for personal data embodied in plants that could be taken forward by the DIS community.

Fruit Are Heavy: A Prototype Public IoT System to Support Urban Foraging

Carl DiSalvo, Tom Jenkins, Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Keywords: Foraging, Public IoT, Public Design, Participatory Design, Diverse Economies, Community Economies, Smart Cities, Digital Civics

Abstract: Smart cities are one area of interactive systems design where the technologies and services of the Internet of Things (IoT) have the potential to serve public interest. In this paper we present a design research project that explores the use of IoT technologies—specifically environmental sensing—to support urban foraging. We describe the design of a simple proof-of-concept sensing platform to monitor the relative ripeness of fruit in trees, and reflect upon its potential effectiveness for urban foraging. From the project, we draw out themes for designing in the context of smart cities, including questioning the presumed “smartness” of IoT systems, and highlight issues in designing to support diverse community economies.

Coffee Break   ::   10.30am – 11am

TUESDAY SESSION 2  ::  11am – 12.30pm

Futures

MUSICHALL
Session Chair: Ann Light

The Rise of Bots: A Survey of Conversational Interfaces, Patterns, and Paradigms

Lorenz Klopfenstein, Saverio Delpriori, Silvia Malatini, Alessandro Bogliolo,  University of Urbino.

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Keywords: Conversational UI; mobile UI; botplication; bots; messaging

Abstract: This work documents the recent rise in popularity of messaging bots: chatterbot-like agents with simple, textual interfaces that allow users to access information, make use of services, or provide entertainment through online messaging platforms. Conversational interfaces have been often studied in their many facets, including natural language processing, artificial intelligence, human-computer interaction, and usability. In this work we analyze the recent trends in chatterbots and provide a survey of major messaging platforms, reviewing their support for bots and their distinguishing features. We then argue for what we call “Botplication”, a bot interface paradigm that makes use of context, history, and structured conversation elements for input and output in order to provide a conversational user experience while overcoming the limitations of text-only interfaces.

Real-Fictional Entanglements: Using Science Fiction and Design Fiction to Interrogate Sensing Technologies

Richmond Wong, Ellen Van Wyk, James Pierce, University of California Berkeley.

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Keywords: Design fiction; science fiction; privacy; design workbooks

Abstract: We present a set of design fiction proposals related to sensing and tracking technologies, inspired by the 2013 science fiction novel The Circle. By creating design proposals that explore connections between the novel’s imagined world and our present and future realities, we show that we are able to explore, expand, and articulate a range of social, technical, and legal configurations of the future. This paper contributes a set of design fiction proposals and a case study of a design project that uses design fiction inspired by a science fiction text to engage issues of privacy and surveillance. The paper also provides a new approach to creating design fiction, by using science fiction texts as a starting point.

Apply Now!: Fictional Job Postings as an Instrument to Discuss Interactive Futures of Work

Verena Fuchsberger, Thomas Meneweger, Daniela Wurhofer, Manfred Tscheligi, University of Salzburg.

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Keywords: Design fiction; work places; computer-supported practices.

Abstract: Design fiction provides us with a variety of ways to explore potential interactive futures. In order to reflect on the future of workplaces, we created fictional job postings for the context of production facilities. This context is characterized by many constraints, which are often hard to overcome when envisioning the future of interactive practices in such environments. With the fictional job postings, we triggered discussions with stakeholders from a production site and with the public – which both resulted in highly controversial debates. In this note, we present the evolution of an exemplary job posting and the reactions it evoked. We then discuss our learnings (e.g., that the degree of fiction is essential) and conclude by reflecting on how this instrument facilitates the exploration of prospective interactive practices at work.

Tiles: A Card-based Ideation Toolkit for the Internet of Things

Simone Mora, Francesco Gianni, Monica Divitini, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

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Keywords: Design tools; card tools; Internet of Things; IoT; augmented objects.

Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) offers new opportunities to invent technology-augmented things that are more useful, efficient or playful than their ordinary selves, yet only a few tools currently support ideation for the IoT. In this paper we present Tiles Cards, a set of 110 design cards and a workshop technique to involve non-experts in quick idea generation for augmented objects. Our tool aims to support exploring combinations of user interface metaphors, digital services, and physical objects. Then it supports creative thinking through provocative design goals inspired by human values and desires. Finally, it provides critical lenses through which analyze and judge design outcomes. We evaluated our tool in 9 ideation workshops with a total of 32 participants. Results show that the tool was useful in informing and guiding idea generation and was perceived as appealing and fun. Drawing on observations and participant feedbacks, we reflect on the strengths and limitations of this tool.

Communication

EAST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: Ann Marie Kanstrup
Read Abstract

Keywords: Messaging; content; daily communication; prototyping

Abstract: The design of most instant messaging (IM) tools focuses on exchanging content as the meaning and process of communication, a convention that equates content with meaning in a way counter to modern theories of interpersonal communication. We critique these conventions in designing a mobile messaging application, BubbleQ, which de-emphasizes message content and defamiliarizes interaction flows by forbidding users to send content directly. Instead, users send empty “bubbles”, blank messages that recipients can fill and return to the sender. Messages are also presented not as per-user threads, but as an aggregation of bubbles across all conversational partners; they are also given a physical form to interact with to further violate common IM design conventions. Interviews with 28 college students who used BubbleQ for two weeks show that these design twists made room for negotiating other meanings, supported playful, mundane interaction, and provided resources for deepening relationships. Further, the aggregate bubbles view led people to reflect holistically on interactions. Together, these findings suggest that IM designers should spend more time addressing the meanings, embodiments, embedding, and cost of messages.

Soil, Rock, and Snow: On Designing for Information Sharing in Outdoor Sports

Paweł Woźniak, University of Stuttgart; Anton Fedosov, Università della Svizzera italiana; Eleonora Mencarini, i3, FBK-irst; Kristina Knaving, University of Gothenburg.

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Keywords: Information sharing; skiing; climbing; trail running; communication; qualitative study

Abstract: While outdoor sport activities keep gaining popularity as part of a global trend to maintain a healthier lifestyle, current technology offers limited support for activity-specific needs. Therefore, a greater understanding of information sharing behaviours is necessary in order to build comprehensive, socially-embedded sports applications. To this purpose, we interviewed 46 practitioners in three outdoor sports: trail running, climbing, and skiing. Our qualitative study investigates how participants share information in the context of outdoor sports and how current technology supports this practice. Through thematic analysis, we derived five themes that describe the current information sharing practices: nature, risk and planning, content selection, audience selection, and privacy. Based on these themes, we present five recommendations for design that can inform, inspire and refine future sharing technologies for outdoor sport.

Applying Real-Time Text on Instant Messaging for a Rapid and Enriched Conversation Experience

Chang Min Kim, HyeonBeom Yi, Jiwon Nam, Geehyuk Lee, KAIST.

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Keywords: Real-Time Text; Instant Messaging; CMC; Turn-Taking; Discourse Analysis; Comparative Study

Abstract: Despite the advantages of instant messaging (IM) such as simple and fast messaging, IM cannot be considered as effective as face-to-face actual conversation. The current message-by-message interface shows a gap with actual conversation in terms of temporal structure and information dimension levels. Our study investigated the real-time text-displaying interface as a way of shortening this gap. A comparative user study was conducted with three types of IM interfaces to compare and analyze the duration of silence (short pause when nobody types through the IM) quantitatively. Varying chatting experiences in each IM interface were qualitatively measured through a focus group interview. We report the study results regarding the reduced duration of silence, non-verbal expression channel, and new texting techniques found in the real-time text interface. We also discuss design implications for improving the conversing experience for IM interfaces.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Objects with Intent; tactfulness; computational expressivity; material qualities; temporal form; sensitive settings; families; communication; disruptive life events

Abstract: This pictorial describes the process and rationale behind the design features of AscoltaMe (in Italian, “listen to me”). This is a computational object imbued with the intent to help families overcome the emotional barriers they may experience during a disruptive life event, as they attempt to maintain healthy communication. With a focus on the object’s material qualities and temporal form, the pictorial introduces and visually outlines tactfulness as the fundamental characteristic that enables objects designed for sensitive settings to be intentful in ways that are appropriate and sensitive.

Quantified Self

WEST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: Ingi Helgason

FutureSelf: What Happens When We Forecast Self-Trackers? Future Health Statuses?

Saeyoung Rho, Injung Lee, Hankyung Kim, Jonghyuk Jung, HYUNGI KIM, Bong Gwan Jun, Youn-kyung Lim, KAIST.

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Keywords: Consequence Information; User Experience; Design; Health; Activity Tracker; Self-Tracking; Personal Informatics.

Abstract: The adoption of self-tracking services to improve health-related behavior is increasing. Although psychologists claim that thinking about the future has a motivational impact on current behavior and cognition, few studies have explored using future forecast in self-tracking services. In this paper, we explore how future forecast information can be used in the design of self-tracking services. We conducted a four-week study that qualitatively investigated 11 participants’ perceptions of and practices with future forecast information. Participants used the FutureSelf app that we developed, which forecasts dieters’ future weights and expected goal achievement rates based on their current behavior. The findings reveal that predicting future weight based on prior performance induced participants to imagine their future selves and reminded them of their ultimate goals. In fact, the predictions became the participants’ primary source of motivation. We also suggest design implications for self-tracking services that forecast users’ future statuses.

Designing Documentary Informatics

Chris Elsden, Abigail Durrant, David Chatting, Newcastle University; David Kirk, Northumbria University.

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Keywords: Documentary Informatics; Data-Driven Life; Quantified Self; Speculative Methods; Remembering; Weddings;

Abstract: In this paper we describe a Research through Design inquiry about a speculative wedding documentation service, in the mode of the Quantified Self. We reflect on our design research, which included design ethnography, interviews, enactments of parts of the service, and the production of a concept brochure. In so doing, we explore the design of personal tracking as a documentary activity, one intended for longer-term self-expression and remembering – rather than simply to monitor, regulate and motivate a data-driven life. Developing the Lived Informatics discourse, we use our design-led inquiry to propose ‘Documentary Informatics’ as an alternative and longer-term design perspective on self-tracking tools.

Digital Systems and the Experience of Legacy

Rebecca Gulotta, Carnegie Mellon University; Aisling Kelliher, Virginia Tech; Jodi Forlizzi, Carnegie Mellon University.

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Keywords: Digital systems; legacy; memory; remembrance; family; design research; experience design; death and dying

Abstract: As people generate large quantities of heterogeneous data across their lifetimes, there is an opportunity to consider how we might build digital systems that leverage this information to help people communicate aspects of their life for which they would like to be remembered without the need to directly assign or pass on this information to another person. We present a study that leverages existing research and the use of an online design probe to explore how people think about how they’ll be remembered, and how digital systems and information might help shape how people look back on and interpret people’s lives after they’ve passed away. Findings from this work articulate specific challenges and opportunities for building systems to support people’s ability to engage with experiences and memories through their digital materials.

The Autobiographical Design and Long Term Usage of an Always-On Video Recording System for the Home

Yasamin Heshmat, Carman Neustaedter, Brendan DeBrincat, Simon Fraser University.

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Keywords: Photos and video; families; surveillance; memories; slow technology

Abstract: Photo and video capture is currently dominated by the use of digital cameras, often in the form of smartphones. Yet there is easily the chance that one can miss capturing a precious moment. We explored the idea of automated video recording in the home as a form of memory collection and display for families through the autobiographical design of Moments, an always-on video recording system. We iteratively designed Moments and it was used by one of the researchers and his family over a two-year period. The family found potential for the system in capturing moments that would have otherwise been forgotten in time, where they especially valued seeing ‘big changes’ and minute details of their life. Yet tensions existed around the family’s inabilities to access specific points in time, commitment to keeping the system running, and privacy. We use these benefits and concerns to suggest future research directions for always-on video recording in the home.

Lunch Break   ::   12.30pm – 1.30pm

Facebook Symposium

EAST DRAWING ROOM

Impact and Empathy: The What, Why and How of Design and Research Careers in Industry

Lyndsay Watt (Product Design), Paul André (UX Research), Facebook

TUESDAY SESSION 3  ::  1.30pm – 3pm

Children

MUSICHALL
Session Chair: Mary Luiz Barreto

How Game Balancing Affects Play: Player Adaptation in an Exergame for Children with Cerebral Palsy

Susan Hwang, Adrian Schneider, Daniel Clarke, Queen’s University, Kingston; Alexander Macintosh, Lauren Switzer, Darcy Fehlings, Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Toronto; T.C. Nicholas Graham, Queen’s University, Kingston.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Game balancing; exergame; active video game; player balancing; video game design

Abstract: Player balancing helps people with different levels of physical ability and experience play together by providing customized assistance. Player balancing is particularly important in exergames, where differences in physical ability can have a large impact on game outcomes, and in making games accessible to people with motor disabilities. To date, there has been little research into how balancing affects people’s gameplay behaviour over time. This paper reports on a six-day study with eight youths with cerebral palsy. Two games incorporated algorithms to balance differences in pedaling ability and aiming ability. Balancing positively impacted motivation versus non-balanced conditions. Even in “blowout” games where one player won by a large margin, perceived fun and fairness were higher for both players when a player balancing algorithm was present. These results held up over six days, demonstrating that the results of balancing continued even after players had the opportunity to understand and adapt to the balancing algorithms.

Engaging Children Using a Digital Living Media System

Foad Hamidi, University of Maryland; Melanie Baljko, York University.

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Keywords: Digital living media systems; user experience; interaction design for children; children with disabilities

Abstract: Digital living media systems consist of living organisms combined with electronic components and can reflect or represent information to users (e.g., as an ambient display). We have developed, Rafigh, a digital living media system that utilizes the growth rate of a living mushroom colony to reflect users’ digital application use. We used Rafigh to study how digital living media systems can 1) motivate children to use therapeutic and/or learning digital applications, and 2) increase communication and collaboration in the home setting. We conducted two in situ case studies with four children and their caregivers which showed that the system successfully motivated two of the children to use target applications and created communication and collaboration in the home setting. Additionally, the two children were not deterred by the slow changes in the system. We discuss the implications for using digital living media systems to engage and motivate children through dynamics of caring and responsibility.

Calming Children When Drawing Blood Using Breath-based Biofeedback

Tobias Sonne, Timothy Merritt, Aarhus University; Paul Marshall, University College London; Johanne Lomholt, Jörg Müller, Kaj Grønbæk, Aarhus University.

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Keywords: Children; assistive technology; hospital context; medical; blood drawing; blood test; biofeedback; game; calming; relax; field study; tangible computing; in the wild; 3D print

Abstract: Blood sampling is a common and necessary procedure in the treatment and diagnosis of a variety of diseases. However, it often results in painful and stressful experiences for children. Designed together with domain experts, ChillFish is a breath-controlled biofeedback game technology with bespoke airflow sensor that aims to calm children during blood sampling procedures. An experimental pilot study was conducted in which 20 children aged 6-11 were assigned to one of two conditions involving either passive distraction (watching a video) or active distraction using the ChillFish prototype. Medical staff rated ChillFish significantly more useful in facilitating the blood sampling procedure compared to passive distraction. Qualitative feedback from patients, parents, and medical staff identified aspects that impact the acceptance of breath-based active distraction. Our study highlights the potential of non-pharmacological assistive technology tools to reduce fear and pain for children undergoing painful or stressful medical treatment.

Enabling Collaboration in Learning Computer Programing Inclusive of Children with Vision Impairments

Anja Thieme, Cecily Morrison, Nicolas Villar, Martin Grayson, Siân Lindley, Microsoft Research.

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Keywords: Collaboration; design for children; visual impairment; visual disability; accessibility; education; tangibility; tactility

Abstract: We investigate how technology can support collaborative learning by children with mixed-visual abilities. Responding to a growing need for tools inclusive of children with vision impairments (VI) for the teaching of computer programing to novice learners, we explore Torino – a physical programing language for teaching programing constructs and computational thinking to children age 7-11. We draw insights from 12 learning sessions with Torino that involved five pairs of children with vision ranging from blindness to full-sight. Our findings show how sense-making of the technology, collaboration, and learning were enabled through an interplay of system design, programing tasks and social interactions, and how this differed between the pairs. The paper contributes insights on the role of touch, audio and visual representations in designs inclusive of people with VI, and discusses the importance and opportunities provided through the ‘social’ in negotiations of accessibility, for learning, and for self-perceptions of ability and self-esteem..

Robots

EAST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: Nick Taylor

Voodle: Vocal Doodling to Sketch Affective Robot Motion

David Marino, Paul Bucci, Oliver Schneider, Karon MacLean, University of British Columbia.

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Keywords: Vocal interfaces; voice input; sound symbolism; animation; human-robot interaction; haptics; vocal-haptic interface

Abstract: Social robots must be believable to be effective; but creating believable, affectively expressive robot behaviours requires time and skill. Inspired by the directness with which performers use their voices to craft characters, we introduce Voodle (vocal doodling), which uses the form of utterances — e.g., tone and rhythm — to puppet and eventually control robot motion. Voodle offers an improvisational platform capable of conveying hard-to-express ideas like emotion. We created a working Voodle system by collecting a set of vocal features and associated robot motions, then incorporating them into a prototype for sketching robot behaviour. We explored and refined Voodle’s expressive capacity by engaging expert performers in an iterative design process. We found that users develop a personal language with Voodle; that a vocalization’s meaning changed with narrative context; and that voodling imparts a sense of life to the robot, inviting designers to suspend disbelief and engage in a playful, conversational style of design.

Read Abstract

Keywords: Tangible user interfaces; human-robot interaction; graphical user interfaces; end-user programming; tactile feedback

Abstract: Traditional GUI applications provide limited support for tangible interaction, as most applications are not programmed to support tangible input, and most input devices do not provide haptic feedback. To address this limitation, we introduce GUI Robots, a software framework that enables developers to repurpose off-the-shelf robots as tangible input and haptic output devices, and to connect them to unmodified desktop applications. We introduce the GUI Robots framework and present several proof-of-concept applications, including a haptic scroll wheel, force feedback game controllers, a 3D mouse, and a self-driving notification robot. To evaluate whether GUI Robots can be used to prototype tangible interfaces for existing applications, we conducted a user study in which developers created customized tangible interfaces for two applications. Study participants were able to create tangible user interfaces for these applications in less than an hour. GUI Robots allows developers to easily extend applications with tangible input and haptic output.

Robotic Table and Bench Enhance Mirror Type Social Telepresence

Hideyuki Nakanishi, Kazuaki Tanaka, Ryoji Kato, Xing Geng, Osaka University; Naomi Yamashita, NTT Communication Science Laboratories.

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Keywords: Remote haptic sensation; social telepresence; mirror-type videoconferencing; video-mediated communication; social interaction

Abstract: Current videoconferencing systems can be roughly divided into two types: a window-type where a computer display works as a window to reveal a remote partner, and a mirror-type whose display shows the mirrored reflections of both participants. While mirror-type systems enhance the feeling of togetherness by merging the two sites into one display, an inherent problem remains. Despite the mirror metaphor, the partner has no physical body in front of the display. To cope with this incongruence, we placed a partition in front of the display. Across that partition we further also placed a robotic table and a robotic bench that move based on the partner’s behavior. The experiments indicated that the table and bench successfully facilitated feeling as if there were the partner’s physical body was present at the opposite side of the partition.

CoilMove: An Actuated to-body Energy Transfer System

Paul Worgan, MIT; Mike Fraser, University of Bristol.

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Keywords: To-body energy transfer; actuated energy transfer; wearable charging; mobile charging; ubiquitous charging

Abstract: Today, users are an integral part of charging their mobile and wearable computing devices, including smartphones, smartwatches, fitness trackers and music players. In this paper CoilMove is presented. CoilMove is an actuated wireless energy transfer system, envisaged as being embedded within a surface in a user’s ambient environment, such as a floor or table. CoilMove transfers energy to devices located on the body and can recharge our mobile and wearable devices through inductive power transfer without the need for user input. CoilMove is capable of locating a device on a user’s body through the presence of a magnet on the device. The user need not be aware of the interaction and from a user perspective devices would appear to charge themselves. Furthermore CoilMove is compliant with international guidelines on time-varying magnetic fields present in inductive power transfer systems, affording prolonged system use.s.

Visualisation

WEST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: Daniel Herron

The Visual and Beyond: Characterizing Experiences with Auditory, Haptic and Visual Data Representations

Trevor Hogan, Cork Institute of Technology; Uta Hinrichs, university of St Andrews; Eva Hornecker, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar.

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Keywords: Qualitative evaluation; Sonification; Physicalisation; Phenomenology; RepGrid, Micro-phenomenological interview; Data interpretation; Embodiment

Abstract: Research in sonification and physicalization have expanded data representation techniques to include senses beyond the visual. Yet, little is known of how people interpret and make sense of haptic and sonic compared to visual representations. We have conducted two phenomenologically oriented comparative studies (applying the Repertory Grid and the Micro-phenomenological interview technique) to gather in-depth accounts of people’s interpretation and experience of different representational modalities that included auditory, haptic and visual variations . Our findings show a rich characterization of these different representational modalities: our visually oriented representations engage through their familiarity, accuracy and easy interpretation, while our representations that stimulated auditory and haptic interpretation were experienced as more ambiguous, yet stimulated an engaging interpretation of data that involved the whole body. We describe and discuss in detail participants’ processes of making sense and generating meaning using the modalities’ unique characteristics, individually and as a group. Our research informs future research in the area of multimodal data representations from both a design and methodological perspective.

Towards Personalized Visualization: Information Granularity, Situation, and Personality

Nels Oscar, Oregon State University; Shannon Mejía, University of Michigan; Ronald Metoyer, University of Notre Dame; Karen Hooker, Oregon State University.

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Keywords: Adaptive Visualization; Personality; Visualization; Personal Visual Analytics

Abstract: Technology users are collecting data about themselves at an astounding rate. This explosion of data collection has not been matched by users’ abilities to assimilate and apply this information. Visualization is a key means of bridging this gap, however, most approaches to visualization neglect individual differences, and focus instead on one-size-fits-all approaches. One proposed solution to this problem is adaptive visualization. To produce appropriate adaptive visualization tools, however, we must understand the relationship between a user’s context and the visualization they require. In this paper, we present a study designed to understand the effects of visualizations that are mismatched, in terms of granularity, to user contexts. We show that users are able to interpret data visualizations most accurately and quickly when the information granularity of the visualization they are shown matches their need for detail and we discuss the consequences of mismatching the information granularity of a visualization to a user’s information needs.

Recognition of Text and Shapes on a Large-Sized Head-Up Display

Renate Haeuslschmid, LMU Munich; Susanne Forster, Katharina Vierheilig, IAV GmbH; Daniel Buschek, Andreas Butz, LMU Munich.

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Keywords: Head-up display; windshield display; in-vehicle interfaces; sizing recommendations; interface guidelines

Abstract: The ever-increasing amount of information in cars demands novel and safer displays, such as head-up or windshield displays. We present two studies that investigate the recognition of stimuli presented on a windshield display. Using a divided attention task and a driving simulator, we first compared four types of stimuli which are common in traffic signs: text, circles, triangles, and squares. We measured the response times at 17 positions within an extended field of regard of 35°x15°. The follow-up study validated our results by replicating the first study with two changes: We investigated the influence of peripheral workload with a more diverse simulated environment and tested for training effects by converting the setup to a left-hand drive car. We contribute response times and sizing recommendations for a field of regard of 35°x15°. These recommendations will help designers of large head-up displays to create interfaces which are well-legible and avoid both cluttering the driver’s view and occluding the road scene.

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Keywords: Narrative visualization; public visualization; public displays; infovis; information visualization; casual visualization; in-the-wild.

Abstract: Public displays are increasingly deployed to make civic data easily and publicly consumable. While augmenting such public visualizations with a narrative design strategy could be promising to engage a lay audience, they might perform differently on public displays than on common online media because of the more context-sensitive environment. We therefore report on a comparative in-the-wild study of a public display that contrasts an identical public visualization with and without a narrative structure, and unravel how this affects the user engagement and insight creation process. Our findings indicate how a narrative strategy in relation to contextual aspects supports deeper, more personal reflection on data, connects authorship to the surrounding environment, and overcomes comprehension issues. We believe these results are useful for making public visualizations more effective, as well as understanding why and how lay users interact with and learn from narrative data visualization in general.

Coffee Break   ::   3pm – 3.30pm

Tuesday SESSION 4  ::  3.30pm – 5pm

Creativity

MUSICHALL
Session Chair: Kim Halskov

Understanding Creativity Methods in Design

Michael Mose Biskjaer, Peter Dalsgaard, Kim Halskov, Aarhus University.

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Keywords: Creativity; ideation; design methods; creativity methods; analytical framework.

Abstract: This paper contributes an analytical framework to improve understanding of the composition of recognized creativity methods used in design. Based on an extensive literature review, our framework synthesizes key concepts from design and particularly creativity research, and is further supported by significant experience with creativity methods in design. We propose that nine concepts are relevant for analyzing creativity methods in design: process structure, materials, tools, combination, metaphor, analogy, framing, divergence, and convergence. To test their relevance as components of an analytical framework, we use these key concepts to analyze three recognized creativity methods that we have often used ourselves: Inspiration Card Workshops, Fictional Inquiry, and Extreme Characters. Our analytical framework expands current categorizations of methods and offers new insight into how creativity methods are composed, how and why they work, and how they potentially may be tweaked or refined for enhanced deployment in design.

Creative Evaluation

Georgios Marentakis, Graz University of Technology; David Pirrò, Marian Weger, University of Music and Performing Arts , Graz.

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Keywords: User Evaluation, Interactive Art, Artistic Research

Abstract: Interactive systems are traditionally evaluated against an `intended’ use by involving external participants. This approach has been challenged recently because of difficulties in addressing applications without an `intended’ use or an `intended’ interpretation, but also because the propositionality of the evaluation medium may not address the aesthetics of interactive systems sufficiently. We turn our attention to the evaluation of interactive art, in which, although both difficulties emerge, traditional evaluation methods are commonly used. In trying to stay open to interpretation and address aesthetic thinking and knowledge, we introduce and apply creative evaluation. Ten artists were asked to both direct themselves enacting their interaction experience and to express it using artistic media. Inspiration was obtained in two interactive installations. The results of this experiment demonstrate the ability of artistic practice to maintain interpretation variability and its capacity to address aesthetic thinking and knowledge in the evaluation of interactive systems.

Logue: Unitizing Interactive Fictions for Co-creation

Ho Ryun Song, Georgia Institute of Technology; Soojin Jun, Yonsei University.

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Keywords: Co-creation; Storytelling; Interactive Fiction; Hypertext; Hypermedia; Metadata

Abstract: This paper examines the shift in interactive fictions (IF) from traditional hypertext narrative contexts to the recent trend of adapting social media to deliver highly multilinear narratives. While various story creation and distribution tools have been developed over the past 30 years that range in levels of interactivity and sophistication, these advancements have failed to address the aspect of co-creation. In this paper, we present the Logue system, which breaks down fiction into small episodes and tags them with metadata, making actionable units to empower co-creators. Based on the need assessments from a focus group, two prototypes were implemented to test if sorting by metadata complements what is lacking in conventional node and link approach in IF. Findings demonstrate that Logue can help creators not only structure the intricate storylines of co-created content but also provide diverse ways of understanding the story differently by viewing it from different perspectives of metadata.

The Rough Mile: Testing a Framework of Immersive Practice

Jocelyn Spence, Adrian Hazzard, Sean McGrath, Chris Greenhalgh, Steve Benford, The University of Nottingham.

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Keywords: Immersion; immersive; sound; performance; theatrical performance; experience; locative audio; gifting

Abstract: We present our case study on gifting digital music, The Rough Mile, as an example of a Framework of Immersive Practice, intended for researchers and practitioners in HCI and interaction design. Although immersion is a frequently used term in the HCI and related literatures, we find no definitions or frameworks that are robust enough to capture the full range of multi-sensory, emotional, and cognitive engagement that the richest of these experiences can entail. We therefore turn to the theatrical performance literature to distil a theory-based framework of practices that can apply to interdisciplinary projects as well as works with an entirely aesthetic aim. The design choices and findings of The Rough Mile are presented in terms of this framework, leading to a discussion of the design guidelines that can shape its use in any HCI or interaction design project aiming for a deep, personal engagement through technology.

Pictorials 2

EAST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: Colin Gray

Designing Memory Probes to Inform Dialogue

Wenn-Chieh Tsai, Daniel Orth, Elise van den Hoven, University of Technology Sydney.

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Keywords: Autobiographical Memory; Cherished Object; Design Probe; Participatory Inquiry Paradigm; Reminiscence; Traces of Use

Abstract: To investigate the phenomenon that occurs during interactions between used objects and autobiographical memories, which are both ever-changing and imbedded with personal significance, an adapted probing method capable of managing these complex qualities is needed. This pictorial is our attempt to find a nuanced indication of how probes could go beyond common usage to facilitate complex felt experience, and how probes can be used in less prescriptive ways to instead promote reminiscent dialogues that are rich and open to interpretation for both participants and researchers. It illustrates our exploration into potential Memory Probes and how this might be done that reflects the value we see in creating restrictions or limitations in technology-mediated interactions to encourage active participation by users in social acts such as memory creation and remembrance.

Giving Form to a Hedonic Haptics Player

Laurens Boer, Anna Vallgårda, Ben Cahill, IT University Copenhagen.

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Keywords: Vibrotactile; Haptic Interfaces; Aesthetics; Pleasure.

Abstract: In this pictorial we present the form-giving process of a Hedonic Haptic player, a wearable device that plays vibrotactile patterns on the body. We depict how we explored the aesthetics of the vibrotactile design space, how we constructed a platform as body of a hedonic experience, and how we developed different vibrotactile compositions. These activities collectively show how combinations of experiencing form, composing form, and materializing form can contribute to the aesthetic form-giving practice in interaction design.

Wear.x: Developing Wearables that Embody Felt Experience

Janne Mascha Beuthel, Danielle Wilde, University of Southern Denmark.

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Keywords: Wearables; Felt Experience; Fashion Ideation; Embodiment; Empathy.

Abstract: Physical discomfort can be highly personal, difficult to discern from the outside, challenging to effectively communicate. Yet communicating discomfort can be of great value. We present a method for developing wearables that transfer one person’s discomfort to another: a modified fashion ideation process that enables a person to bring their hidden embodied experiences into wearable form. Using five complementary foci, the method seeks to simulate rather than replicate; to support people to find abstracted expressions for their lived experiences of discomfort, with which to negotiate shared understanding. The resulting wearables support empathic engagement with how another person might feel. Physical discomfort can be highly personal, difficult to discern from the outside, challenging to effectively communicate. Yet communicating discomfort can be of great value. We present a method for developing wearables that transfer one person’s discomfort to another: a modified fashion ideation process that enables a person to bring their hidden embodied experiences into wearable form. Using five complementary foci, the method seeks to simulate rather than replicate; to support people to find abstracted expressions for their lived experiences of discomfort, with which to negotiate shared understanding. The resulting wearables support empathic engagement with how another person might feel.

Ori-mandu: Korean Dumpling into Whatever Shape You Want

Bokyung Lee, Jiwoo Hong, Jaeheung Surh, Daniel Saakes, KAIST.

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Keywords: Digital Gastronomy; food fabrication; dumpling;

Abstract: Food 3D printing is getting the spotlight by offering the opportunity to customize food appearances, textures, and flavors that are troublesome to make by hand. In additive manufacturing, machines extrude ingredients into a certain shape, however, they cannot be applied to all types of food, such as mandu (Korean dumpling). In this pictorial, we extend the research on digital gastronomy by using digital fabrication to create custom tools that assist the process of cooking. We present the iterative process of designing the “Ori-mandu” system, and how Ori-mandu enables users to fabricate dumplings in whatever shape they want.

AscoltaMe: Retracing the Computational Expressivity of a Tactful Object for Sensitive Settings

Patrizia D’Olivo, Marco Rozendaal, Elisa Giaccardi, Delft University of Technology.

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Keywords: Digital Gastronomy; food fabrication; dumpling;

Abstract: Food 3D printing is getting the spotlight by offering the opportunity to customize food appearances, textures, and flavors that are troublesome to make by hand. In additive manufacturing, machines extrude ingredients into a certain shape, however, they cannot be applied to all types of food, such as mandu (Korean dumpling). In this pictorial, we extend the research on digital gastronomy by using digital fabrication to create custom tools that assist the process of cooking. We present the iterative process of designing the “Ori-mandu” system, and how Ori-mandu enables users to fabricate dumplings in whatever shape they want.

Essays

WEST DRAWING ROOM
Session Chair: Roisin McNaney

Translational Resources: Reducing the Gap Between Academic Research and HCI Practice

Lucas Colusso, Sean Munson, Gary Hsieh, Cynthia Bennett, University of Washington.

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Keywords: Translational Research; theory; design; research-practice gap

Abstract: Academic research can offer insights for HCI practitioners, yet past work shows that research findings are rarely used in industry. We interviewed 22 design practitioners to identify why they do not use academic research and why and how they use other resources at work. We contribute recommendations for the design of translational resources to bridge the gap between theory and practice in HCI. We recommend ways to create theory-driven examples tailored to specific activities: understanding, brainstorming, building, and advocacy. Additionally, practitioners prefer actionable guidance and see prescriptive recommendations and downloadable design patterns as most useful. Design-oriented filters, support for mapping design challenges to research keywords, and visual galleries of examples from theory have the potential to facilitate designers’ search processes. Finally, translational resources and discussion features can be integrated into tools for designers and academics to support cross-community collaboration.

Reviewing the Big Questions Literature;: or, Should HCI Have Big Questions?

Jordan Beck, Erik Stolterman, Indiana University Bloomington.

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Keywords: Big questions; research questions; HCI; disciplinarity; cohesion; intellectual progress; status

Abstract: What are big questions? Why do scholars propose them? How are they generated? Could they be valuable and useful in HCI research? In this paper we conduct a thorough review of “big questions” literature, which draws on scholarship from a variety of fields and disciplines. Our intended contribution is twofold. First, we provide a substantive review of big questions scholarship, which to our knowledge has never been done before. Second, we leverage this summary as a means of examining the value and utility of big questions in HCI as a research discipline. Whether HCI decides that generating and having big questions would be a desirable path forward, we believe that examining the potential for big questions is a useful way of becoming more reflective about HCI research.

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Keywords: Critical theory; critical research; critical design; provocation; empowerment

Abstract: Critical design arouses increasing interest in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Critical Design is a relatively novel and a contentious design approach within this stream, while also other critical design approaches are emerging in HCI. Information systems research, then again, has been fascinated with critical research for decades and strongly integrated the critical lens into studies on systems development and use. However, critical information systems research is weak in the design practice – very few studies actually involve design. We argue that combining the forces of these various critical traditions, an empowering approach to design can be developed. A categorization of critical design approaches is proposed and fascinating paths for future work are identified. Particularly we call for future developments on critical design research along two lines: expert-led critical design better integrating the tenets of the critical research tradition and user-led critical design truly advocating the empowerment of the power-weak.

Beyond Hybrids: Metaphors and Margins in Design

Laura Devendorf, University of Colorado; Daniela Rosner, University of Washington.

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Keywords: Hybrids; Hybrid craft; Coproduction; STS;

Abstract: This paper offers a critical reflection on the term “hybrid”— a term describing the merging of distinct and often contradictory entities. We trace how the term has been taken up in HCI’s programs of design research to explore resolutions between two disparate entities, typically human and machine or the digital and analog. Drawing from programs of feminist technoscience, we suggest an alternative metaphor for designing coproductions. This approach emphasizes the contradictory and collective work of smoothly integrating social categories. We show how designing coproductions begins by locating places where categories break down—where humans are like machines or where the digital can be experienced physically—and uses design to draw out and reflect upon the ever-changing relationship with digital and non-digital domains.

EVENING EVENT  ::   7pm – 10.30pm

Conference Dinner

DYNAMIC EARTH